Physical and chemical changes always occur in the process of laser cladding, and the cladding quality is directly affected by processing parameters. This paper mainly focused on effects of temperature field of preheating substrate on the cladding quality. Laser cladding process has the following experimental parameters: laser power, powder feeding rate and rotational speed. Three types of cladding powders were used: Ni60A, Cr12MoV and WC-Co. Experiments were conducted by using different substrate preheating temperatures and cladding materials, which affect the quality of cladding layers. Comparison and analysis of the three types of powders showed that under different preheating temperatures, the cladding layer is mainly affected by tensile stress. Besides that, the residual stress of cladding layer is always higher than that of heat affected zone and substrates.
The best preheating temperature to test the residual stress for three types of powders are: 600°C, 400°C and 300°C. For all three types of powders under different preheating temperatures, cladding layer and substrate have compact and uniform structures. However, when substrate is overheated the cracking will occur in the substrate. Under different preheating temperatures, the Vickers hardness is higher than that of heat affected zone and the substrate for all three materials. The preheating temperatures for getting the maximum hardness are respectively 300°C, 600°C and 400°C.