Using a machine learning approach, this study investigates the effects of machining parameters on the energy consumption of a milling machine tool, which would allow selection of optimal operational strategies to machine a part with minimum energy. Data-driven prediction models, built upon a nonlinear regression approach, can be used to gain an understanding of the effects of machining parameters on energy consumption. In this study, we use the Gaussian Process to construct the energy prediction model for a computer numerical control (CNC) milling machine tool. Energy prediction models for different machining operations are constructed based on collected data. With the collected data sets, optimum input features for model selection are identified. We demonstrate how the energy prediction models can be used to compare the energy consumption for the different operations and to estimate the total energy usage for machining a generic part. We also present an uncertainty analysis to develop confidence bounds for the prediction model and to provide insight into the vast parameter space and training required to improve the accuracy of the model. Generic parts are machined to test and validate the prediction model constructed using the Gaussian Process and we consistently achieve an accuracy of over 95 % on the total predicted energy.

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