In this paper, we present a systematic modeling method of direct drive systems. Experiments are designed to decouple and model friction and force ripple separately, which are two major sources of tracking error. Three different optimization methods, least square method, nonlinear least square method and particle swarm optimization are used for parameter optimization. The analytical form of the model makes it easy to use in engineering practices. All results are obtained and verified experimentally. The method presented in this paper can also be used to model other mechanical systems.

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