Force modeling of needle insertion into soft tissue is important for accurate needle placement and efficient tissue cutting. In this paper, we studied the pre-puncture and puncture forces during needle insertion. A plane strain FE model was developed to simulate the pre-puncture force prior to tissue rupture. A sensitivity study was performed to investigate the influence of needle and tissue characteristics on pre-puncture force using FE simulation. A force model that incorporates needle geometry and tissue properties was proposed. The force model was able to accurately predict the needle tip force prior to tissue rupture. In addition to studying the pre-puncture force, the puncture force was experimentally characterized for different needle diameters and tip angles. The experimental results show that the puncture force has a strong dependency on needle geometry.

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