As efforts continue to incorporate environmental sustainability into product design, struggles persist to concurrently consider the environmental impacts resulting from transportation planning and supply chain network design. In fact, the transportation sector is the second largest contributor to direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States, following electricity generation. To address these concerns and consider environmental issues more holistically during the development of products, Design for X (X: manufacturing, environment, etc.) methods, such as environmentally benign manufacturing (EBM) and life cycle assessment (LCA) continue to be advanced through research. In spite of improving environmental performance through design, supply chain related impacts are not well understood and can be impacted by decisions made during product design. Thus, the aim of this research is to explore how changes to the design of a product affect manufacturing supply chain configurations and, in turn, influence product environmental sustainability. The environmental impacts for producing several three-ring binder design variations are predicted by assuming a given set of suppliers that provide materials and components to the manufacturer. Supply chain transportation impacts are also accounted for in the analysis. Transportation impacts are found to be minor compared to materials and manufacturing impacts.

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