To evaluate the residual stress distribution along cutting direction in hard turning process, an explicit dynamic thermo-mechanical orthogonal Finite Element Model (FEM) is developed to consider the correlation between residual stress distribution and chip morphology and plough effect by cutting edge. The FEM adopts Johnson-Cook (J-C) model to describe work material property, the critical equivalent plastic strain criterion to simulate chip separation behavior, and the revised coulomb’s law to capture the friction pattern between the tool and chip interface. The FEM is validated by comparing the predicted and experimental chip morphology and residual stress distribution. The residual stress distribution in hard machined surface along cutting direction is accurately captured by using sharp and honed cutting edge tools. The residual stresses by sharp tool demonstrate a periodical characteristic, the fluctuation amplitudes are determined in the surface and subsurface along the cutting direction, and the fluctuation frequency corresponds to that of the saw-tooth chip. However, the residual stresses by honed cutting edge tool demonstrate an indistinct periodic characteristic, the fluctuation frequency in surface and subsurface is larger than that of the saw-tooth chip. Saw-tooth chip formation process by sharp tool is identified to analyze the residual stress scatter periodic mechanism, which associates with the fluctuation of cutting force and temperature. The plough process by honed cutting edge tool is identified to explain the equilibrium effect on the amplitude and frequency of residual stress scatter in hard turned surface and subsurface. The periodical fluctuation characteristics of residual stress in hard turned surface and subsurface is revealed and verified by determining its amplitude and frequency corresponding to that of the saw-tooth chip. The analysis will enhance the fatigue life prediction accuracy by incorporating the effect of residual stresses periodical fluctuation on the crack initiation and propagation life in hard turned surface and subsurface.

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