Continuous use of petroleum derived fuels is widely recognized as unsustainable due to depleting supplies and the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral transport fuels are needed for environmental and economic sustainabilities. Algae have been demonstrated to be one of the most promising sources for biofuel production. However, large-scale algae production and harvesting for energy manufacturing are too costly using existing methods. The approach of growing algae on solid carriers is innovative and can potentially lead to cost-effective manufacturing of algae biofuels. As cells approach to the solid surface, many factors come in to influence microbial attachment such as the surface wettability, free energy, polarity, roughness and topography. Surface wettability plays an important role in the initial cell attachment. For further contact, surface free energy and polarity are more directly related to cell-substratum attachment strength. Surface roughness and texture are species-specific parameters and have been applied widely in attachment studies.

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