It is imperative to develop alternative fuels to replace current petroleum-based liquid transportation fuels. Biofuels produced from cellulosic biomass (forest products and residues, agricultural residues, and dedicated energy crops) is one such alternative. Manufacturing biofuels from cellulosic biomass requires reduction of the material size using mechanical comminution methods. This paper reviews these mechanical comminution methods. It presents their effects on biomass particle size, cellulose crystallinity, and sugar yield. It also discusses the characteristics of each method and future research directions.

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