Product sustainability assessment and evaluation metrics are mostly concerned with product usage and disposal only towards the end of the product lifecycle. Common examples include the energy efficiency and environmentally friendliness definitions used for consumer products. However, a product has already left a ‘footprint’ during its design, manufacturing, production and distribution stages. The energy efficiency and ecological footprint of products in manufacturing processes, operations and facility usages has been overlooked for many decades. In this study, we aim to establish a preliminary framework for defining metrics that may help capture energy efficiency and ecological footprint of discrete parts and products during manufacturing activities to control and improve the sustainability.

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