Current Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process modeling research is concerned with the detailed analysis of local effects such as material flow, heat generation, etc. These detailed thermo-mechanical models are typically solved using finite element or finite difference schemes and require substantial computational effort to determine temperature, forces, etc. at a single point in time. Dynamic models describing the total forces acting on the tool throughout the entire welding process are required for the design of feedback control strategies and improved process planning and analysis. In this paper, empirical models relating the process parameters (i.e., plunge depth, traverse rate, and rotation speed) to the process variables (i.e., axial, traverse, and lateral forces) are developed to understand their dynamic relationship. First, the steady-state relationship between the process parameters and variables is constructed, and the relative importance of each process parameter on each process variable is determined. Next, the dynamic process response characteristics are determined using Recursive Least-Squares. The results indicate that the steady-state relationship between the process parameters and variables is well characterized by a nonlinear power relationship, and the dynamic responses are well characterized by low-order linear equations. Experiments are conducted that validate the developed FSW dynamic models.
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Empirical Dynamic Modeling of Friction Stir Welding Processes
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Zhao, X, Kalya, P, Landers, RG, & Krishnamurthy, K. "Empirical Dynamic Modeling of Friction Stir Welding Processes." Proceedings of the ASME 2007 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference. ASME 2007 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference. Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 15–18, 2007. pp. 27-36. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/MSEC2007-31047
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