Extensive research on G1 biarcs fitting to free-form curves (i.e., Bezier, B-spline, and NURBS curves) has been conducted in the past decades for various purposes, including CNC contouring to make smooth, accurate profile features such as pockets, islands, and sides. However, all the proposed approaches only focused on the approximation errors and the biarc number, not on the radius of the individual fitting arc; so it could be smaller than the cutting tool, which would cause gouging during machining. This work, based on the tool radius pre-determined by the minimum size of the concavities of the design profile, proposes a new approach to approximating the profile with a G1 biarc curve in order to make smooth, accurate, and non-gouged profile features using CNC contouring. The significant new contribution of this work is a new mechanism that ensures all the concave arcs of the fitting curve are larger than the pre-determined tool and the fitting errors meet the specified tolerance. This approach can promote the use of G1 biarc tool paths in the manufacturing industry to make high precision profile features.

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