An important feature of nanoparticles is the increased ratio of surface area to volume resulting in large percentage of the atoms on the surface, making them very reactive and offers opportunities to manipulate the properties through these surface atoms. For the most efficient use of nanoparticles in various applications, including biology and medicine, it is important to be able to manipulate the surface chemistry. This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles and the various surface engineering techniques that are utilized for optimizing their applications in nanomedicine.

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