Nanofluids have attracted increasing interest for more than a decade. A number of studies have demonstrated that nanofluids presented intriguing heat transfer enhancement performances. We produced a series of nanofluids and measured their thermal conductivities. The most used heat transfer fluids including deionized water (DW), ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol, silicone oil, and the binary mixture of DW and EG were used as the base fluids. Various nanoparticles (NPs) including Al 2 O 3 NPs with different sizes, SiC NPs with different shapes, MgO NPs, ZnO NPs, SiO 2 NPs, Fe 3 O 4 NPs, TiO 2 NPs, diamond NPs (DNPs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with different pretreatments have been used as additives. In the present paper, we summarized our experimental results to elucidate the influencing factors for thermal conductivity enhancement of nanofluids. The thermal transport mechanisms in nanofluids were further discussed and the promising approaches for optimizing the thermal conductivity of nanofluids were proposed.