Fundamental studies in nanofluidics have attracted significant attention in the past decade since the success of nanofluidic devices depends on a thorough understanding of the fluidic, ionic, and molecular behaviors in highly confined nano-environments. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations of the effect of surface charge densities on the ion and water distribution in the near wall region has been performed for both (100) and (111) silicon surfaces. We demonstrate that surface charges not only interact with mobile ions in the electrolyte, but also interact with water molecules due to their polarizability and hence influence the orientation of water molecules close to the charged surface. It is shown that as the surface charge density increases, water molecules within ∼ 5 Å from the (100) silicon surface can evolve from one layer into two layers and meanwhile, the orientation of water molecules is more aligned instead of randomly distributed. However, no extra water layer is observed near a (111) silicon surface even under a surface charge density of as high as −0.2034 C/m2. The above phenomenon may be related to the different surface atom densities of (100) and (111) silicon surfaces.

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