The graphene oxide-deionized water (GO-DW) and graphene oxide-ethylence glycol (GO-EG) nanofluids were synthesized. The better suspension of nanofluids was achieved. The thermal conductivity of both nanofluids was analyzed. It indicates that GO nanoparticles can strengthen the thermal conductivity of DW base fluids by 22.6%–61.7% and EG base fluids by 15.3%–32.8%. Four copper heat pipes charged with GO-DW and GO-EG nanofluids as well as DW and EG base fluids were experimentally researched, it is discovered that the addition of GO nonoparticles in heat pipe can elevate the condenser wall temperature and reduce the temperature difference. Future analysis finds that, with respect to DW and EG fluids heat pipe, the thermal resistances of GO-DW and GO-EG nanofluids heat pipe are respectively decreased 42.6–52.4% and 31.9%–38.4% for air cooling, and 15.5–16.7% and 11.5%–18.9% for water cooling at condenser section. Besides, the wick structure of GO-DW nanofluids heat pipe was examined by Scanning Electron Microscope, and the effective thermal conductivity of fluid-wick combination was evaluated. The outcomes demonstrate that the evaporator wick surface contains about 0375–1.24μm coating film of GO nanoparticles. Assumed the coating film is 0.75μm, the effective thermal conductivity of fluid-wick combination is respectively enhanced by 66.92 % for GO-DW nonofluids heat pipe and 37.32% for GO-EG nonofluids heat pipe at 70 °C.