Lipid bilayers form nanopores on the application of an electric field. This process of electroporation can be utilized in different applications ranging from targeted drug delivery in cells to nano-gating membrane for engineering applications. However, the ease of electroporation is dependent on the surface energy of the lipid layers and thus directly related to the packing structure of the lipid molecules. 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) lipid monolayers were deposited on a mica substrate using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique at different packing densities and analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The wetting behavior of these monolayers was investigated by contact angle measurement and molecular dynamics simulations. It was found that an equilibrium packing density of liquid-condensed (LC) phase DPPC likely exists and that water molecules can penetrate the monolayer displacing the lipid molecules. The surface tension of the monolayer in air and water was obtained along with its breakthrough force.

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