Among many testing items of infrastructure, wheel-rail force is an important factor that causes track failure, damage, train derailment and vehicle parts damage. It is also used to evaluate the ride stability, safety and as the main basis for speed limit and speed increase. Among many methods of wheel-rail force detection, the method of wheel-rail force measurement is the most accurate and direct method of wheel-rail force measurement. The method of measuring wheel-rail interaction force using wheelset of railway locomotive and rolling stock as force sensor has the highest accuracy among all wheel-rail force measurement methods.
Force-measuring wheelset is the core sensor in the dynamic test research of railway vehicles, and its performance directly affects the evaluation results of the tested objects. Before the actual line test, it is necessary to calibrate the dynamometer wheelset on the test bench. The calibration of dynamometer wheelset is an important link in the research and application of dynamometer wheelset.
With the rapid development of rail transit in various countries and the great improvement of locomotive and rolling stock manufacturing technology, higher and higher requirements has been put forward for the performance of force-measuring wheelsets, which are mainly embodied in obtaining ideal sensitivity and linearity, minimizing cross-interference and all kinds of possible external interference, and reducing the influence of the change of the position of the action point on the measurement results. For the rigid wheelset, the calibration of the force-measuring wheelset is basically perfect from the actual production to the algorithm. The relevant countries also determine the calibration in the standard form.
At present, more and more urban rail low floor vehicles are using independent resilient wheels. The mechanical structure of the bogie with resilient wheels is complex. At the same time, because of the small diameter of the resilient wheels and the rubber layer between the wheel hoop and the wheel center, it is difficult to find the strain/stress sensitive area accurately, as well as the unique installation process, the calibration of resilient wheels is rather difficult.
This paper takes the low floor resilient wheels as the research object, and studies how to make the calibration method of high precision and suitable for the independent rotating wheels of resilient wheels and the processing and analysis of calibration data. The main research contents are as follows: the development of force-measuring wheelset which is based on the finite element simulation of a resilient wheel, stress distribution analysis, and the fabrication scheme of force-measuring wheelset which meets the requirement of test accuracy is proposed by using virtual bridge formation.