There is a growing trend for transit agencies to evolve from wayside and cab-based signal systems to Communication Based Train Control (CBTC). With the complexity of CBTC, a failure of CBTC component could bring a transit system to a standstill. Implementing a secondary signal system can serve to minimize the consequences of a CBTC failure. It is paramount for a transit system to continue to operate, and axle counter technology can be a suitable candidate for use as a secondary signal system. Axle Counter technology has not been widely used in the U.S., but has been used for many years in Europe and the rest of the world. This paper will review and analysis the following:

1. Train Detection Systems; Track circuits vs. axle counters and the basic Principles of Axle Counting; check-in and check-out.

2. Implementing Electromagnetic Compatibility and the EMI standards used in European with previous testing of various axle counter systems, and the frequencies that have been selected, and the proper usage of these frequencies.

3. Testing of radiated emissions using existing guidelines and methods to analyze existing wayside and vehicle Electromagnetic Interferences (EMI), environment conditions, and the limitations of installing axle counters in an existing rail or transit system.

4. Recommendations for improving vehicle and wayside specifications and standards within the U.S. for dealing with installation of axle counter equipment and with failures and EMI emissions between railway devices.

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