Given the frequent incidences of Non-Accident Releases (NARs) of hazardous materials from tank cars, there in an increasing interest in transporting hazardous materials in total containment conditions (i.e., no pressure relief devices). However, the ability of tank cars to meet thermal protection requirements provided in the Code of Federal Regulations under conditions of total containment has not been established. Also, the modeling tool commonly used by industry to evaluate thermal protection, AFFTAC, has not been validated under these conditions. The intent of this effort was to evaluate through a series of third-scale fire tests, the ability of tank cars to meet the thermal protection requirements under total containment conditions, and also, to validate AFFTAC for such conditions.
This paper describes the test design and planning effort associated with this research, including the design and evaluation of a fire test setup to simulate a credible, fully engulfing, pool fire that is consistent and repeatable, and the design and hydro-static testing of a third-scale tank specimen. The fire design includes controls on the spatial distribution and temperature variation of the flame temperature, the heat flux, and the radiative balance, to best reflect large liquid hydrocarbon pool fire conditions that may be experienced during derailment scenarios.