The natural frequencies of vibration of short span bridges used in high-speed rail were investigated. Three different models of increasing complexity were evaluated and their effects on the vibration frequency were compared to the first basic model of simply supported Euler-Bernoulli beam.
In the second and third cases, the bridge was modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam supported at its two ends by identical spring elements with an equivalent vertical stiffness to simulate elastomeric bearings and soil foundation. The boundary value problem was solved numerically to extract the bridge eigenfrequencies. In the case of Euler-Bernoulli beam, curve fitting techniques were used to deduce accurate simple empirical formulae to calculate the first six natural frequencies of an elastically supported bridge. In the case of a Timoshenko beam, graphical solutions were proposed to compute the fundamental frequency. Results confirmed that the use of Timoshenko beam theory reduces the natural frequency and the consideration of flexible supports further decreases the natural frequency.
In the fourth model, the interaction of the track and the bridge was included. The bridge was modeled as an elastically supported beam and the track was modeled as a spring-damper element with an equivalent vertical stiffness resulting from track components like rail pads, cross-ties and ballast. A parametric study was performed to analyze the effects of the track stiffness on the natural frequencies of the bridge. Graphical solutions were presented to quantify the change of the normalized natural frequencies of the system with the increase in the track modulus. Results indicated that the changes in the track modulus have no significant effects in models with rigid supports. A decrease in the fundamental frequency was noticeable with softer track modulus as the support flexibility increased.