Abstract

The variety of new electronic packaging technologies has grown significantly over the last 20 years as a result of market demands for higher device performance at lower costs and in less space. Those demands have pushed for heterogeneous packaging, where computer chips with different stack heights are closely packed, creating non-uniform multicore chip heat flux and temperature and additional challenges for thermal management. Without implementing an appropriate thermal management strategy for heterogeneous packages, large temperature gradients can be observed within the package, which would increase the thermal stresses on the chip and raise reliability issues. Therefore, removing excessive heat flux will improve the reliability and efficiency of those electronic components. The development of high-heat flux applications is straining the capabilities of air-cooling systems, which are nearing their limitations. Single-phase liquid cooling methods have proven to be reliable, usable, and energy-efficient methods for cooling high-heat flux devices. With the introduction of packages with multiple-chip modules (MCMs), the cold plates of future generations are expected to handle multiple hot spots at the same time. To enable the effective removal of heat from the chips, special cold plate designs for each type of package are required. Many methods may be used to improve thermohydraulic performance, including the use of improved fin designs, flow restriction to breakdown the boundary layer, and the integration of mixing mechanisms to improve the mixing between the fluid and channel walls. To mimic this real-life scenario of such packaging in high-heat flux applications, an experimental setup was designed and built. The design of the new experimental setup consists of four identical 1.2 cm × 1.2 cm ceramic heaters, each of which is connected to a separate power supply and can reach a heat flux of 140 W/cm2. Accordingly, this mock package is capable of delivering different power levels to mimic different multicore microprocessor conditions. To give the heater the ability to move precisely in the x, y, and z directions with high precision, each heater is mounted to an XYZ linear stage. Deionized water (DI) was used as the working fluid, and a commercially available pin-fin heat sink was used to run the initial steady-state tests on the experimental rig. The tests showed how different flow rates at a constant fluid temperature and input power affect the temperatures of the heaters and the thermohydraulic performance of the heat sink. In addition, a three-dimensional numerical model has been developed and validated with experimental data in terms of heat sink pressure drop and temperatures of the heaters.

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