Additive printed electronics, in particular, has been a rapidly advancing field, with applications that span from smart packaging to energy harvesting systems to healthcare devices to intelligent textiles. The basic building block of any flexible circuit created by these technologies is conductive ink. This ink typically comprises metal nanoparticles and several solvents. However, many of the solvents used in these inks are toxic substances or include volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have a variety of negative effects on the environment and human health, including air pollution, smog, respiratory problems, health risks, and reduced air quality. Consequently, there is a strong push toward developing sustainable materials for use in products, including ink formulations with fewer toxic solvents. In this study, researchers investigate the use of two printing techniques, aerosol jet printing and gravure offset printing, to print full-wave rectifiers (AC to DC conversion) and Voltage bridge oscillators (DC to AC conversion) using commercially available aqueous silver ink. The performance of the additively printed circuits is compared to both theoretical values and to the same circuits printed using non-aqueous inks. Additionally, a switch-mode battery charging circuit has also been printed with a sustainable ink and its performance has been investigated.

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