Abstract

Numerical analysis of electromigration in solder joints has mainly examined ball grid arrays (BGAs) in flip-chip packages, and few numerical study has been reported on solder joints in power modules. This report describes an electromigration analysis of solder joints for power modules with a Si-based power device, which are still widely used today, using an electrical-thermal-stress-atomic coupled analysis. To evaluate electromigration, a solder joint with a power device and a substrate as used in power modules was simulated. Due to current crowding, the current density at the edge of the solder joint exceeded the electromigration threshold even in Si-based power modules. Unlike general electromigration phenomena, the vacancy concentration increased at the center and decreased at the edges of the solder joint, regardless of whether it was on the cathode side or anode side. The vacancy concentration clearly increased with increasing current density and size ratio. Creep strain increased significantly with increasing current density, temperature, and size ratio. The largest change in vacancy concentration and creep strain was at the anode edge where current crowding occurred. In addition, we modeled the two-dimensional behavior of metal atoms passing through the interface of the solder joint. The expansion of intermetallic compound was accelerated by increasing the temperature and current density.

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