The effect of citric-acid surface modification on the bond strength of the solid-state bonded interface of tin and copper has been investigated by SEM observation of the interfacial microstructures and fractured surfaces. Citric-acid surface modification was carried out in a vacuum chamber at a bonding temperature of 383–473 K and a bonding pressure of 7 MPa (bonding time: 1800 s). The citric-acid surface modification decreased bonding temperature by 70 K at which bonded joints could be obtained and bond strength comparable with the base metal was achieved.

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