Lithographically defined spring electrical contacts have many applications for next generation electronics test and packaging. The springs can lower the cost of multi-chip modules because their rework ability addresses the known-good-die problem. Lower height chip stacking for mobile electronics markets is enabled because a sliding spring can have a much shorter profile than solder. Larger die can be directly bonded to the board because the compliance absorbs thermal expansion mismatches between substrates. Significant stress isolation is possible, which is important for mechanically sensitive die such as MEMS and low K die. Very high density is possible, as 6 (am pitch has been demonstrated. Fabrication is scalable and assembly is low temperature. This paper reviews our prototype demonstrations for these applications as well as relevant reliability data and contact studies.

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