Refrigeration for electronics components has been studied to keep the junction temperature below allowable limits. Thermoelectrics have been investigated heavily for their dual use over the last six decades These devices can be used for both cooling and power generation. Thermotunneling devices, on the other hand, have been known only for the last two decades, and nobody has been able to manufacture or show the performance of those devices. In this study, we will discuss the thermodynamic efficiency of these systems and design bottlenecks to reach high efficiencies, such as thermal back path and electrical losses. Concepts for possible device designs will be discussed. Then attention will be turned to near field radiation heat transfer that becomes critical in nano scale device designs.

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