Stress sensing test chips are used to investigate die stresses arising from assembly and packaging operations. The chips incorporate resistor or transistor sensing elements that are able to measure stresses via the observation of the changes in their resistivity/mobility. The piezoresistive behavior of such sensors is characterized by three piezoresistive (pi) coefficients, which are electro-mechanical material constants. Stress sensors fabricated on the surface of the (111) silicon wafers offer the advantage of being able to measure the complete stress state compared to such sensors fabricated on the (100) silicon. However, complete calibration of the three independent piezoresistive coefficients is more difficult and one approach utilizes hydrostatic measurement of the silicon “pressure” coefficients. We are interested in stress measurements over a very broad range of temperatures, and this paper present the experimental methods and results for hydrostatic measurements of the pressure coefficient of both n- and p-type silicon over a wide range of temperatures and then uses the results to provide a complete set of temperature dependent piezoresisitive coefficients for the (111) silicon.

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