This paper presents the usage of ultrasonic vibration in laser direct deposition of 316L (stainless steel) powder. Ultrasonic vibration is used to refine the crystalline structure of the deposition. The ultrasonic vibration device vibrates in the laser deposition system along the Z axis while the system is performing metal deposition. A design of experiments approach is applied in studying the effect of vibration on the deposited material. Vibration during deposition led to grain refinement and an increase in micro-hardness. Also, vibration frequency is a significant factor in determining microstructure.

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