This report contains notes, observations and recommendations about the use of batteries in small stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems. The conclusions of this work are based on the results of more than a decade’s worth of battery testing at the Florida Solar Energy Center and related work with Sandia National Laboratories, the PV industry and user groups. The most critical findings were the relationship between battery state-of-charge and battery life and the importance of an adequate PV array-to-load ratio.

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