The objective of this paper was to provide an overview of current ground-based efforts in the design and development of hybrid lighting systems, combining solar irradiance and electric lighting, to effect reduced electrical power demand for growing plants in a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for future space applications on the Moon or Mars. Two experimental Hybrid Solar and Artificial Lighting (HYSAL) systems have been developed: one employing xenon-metal halide (XMH) lamps and the other adopting light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as the electric-lighting components, and both using a mirror-based, fiberoptic-based solar collection system. The results showed that both HYSAL systems provided acceptable spectral quality and lighting uniformity. The apparent electrical conversion efficiency of the HYSAL system with LEDs, however, exceeded that of the HYSAL system with XMH by five-fold. Preliminary simulations of a Martian BLSS indicated that the lighting power required for plant production could be supplemented by the available extraterrestrial solar irradiance by as much as 50%. The use of solar stationary orbits over Mars for an orbiting Martian BLSS to reduce the required electrical power was also suggested.

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