Nine research groups from four countries have been collaborating for 4.5 years under Annex-14 with the aim to advance the science underlying photoelectrolytic hydrogen production from water-splitting. Significant research progress has been made in the areas of material science (semiconductor photoelectrodes, light absorption, photocatalyst stability and charge transfer) and systems development (monolithic multijunction systems, two-photon tandem systems, dual-bed redox systems and monomaterial two-step systems), resulting in the synthesis as well as development of new photoactive materials and the demonstration of various photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting prototype devices, limited to typical laboratory-size miniature scales.

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