There are not many non-biological resources that can be extracted from the ocean without causing serious environmental impact and whose extraction is concomitantly sustainable. But among the few ones it is appropriate to mention ocean energy. The exploitation of these has been suggested for centuries, often decried, only exceptionally undertaken. It is perhaps opportune to reconsider them because, mega-projects set aside, they could bring an appreciable relief to the heavy burden that weighs upon isolated areas, poor countries, deprived of hydrocarbon reserves, for their energy needs.
Ocean Economics: Mining the Sea for Energy — A Sustainable Extraction
Charlier, RH. "Ocean Economics: Mining the Sea for Energy — A Sustainable Extraction." Proceedings of the ASME 2005 International Solar Energy Conference. Solar Energy. Orlando, Florida, USA. August 6–12, 2005. pp. 589-611. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/ISEC2005-76249
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