The integrity management of a pipeline with stress corrosion cracking was accomplished in two distinct phases. The initial phase, from 1993 to 1996, consisted of excavations that quantified damage (stress corrosion cracking & corrosion), fracture mechanics modeling and hydrostatic testing, with a short-term objective of restoring Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP). Limited testing was conducted to evaluate the hydrostatic line on the 610 mm (24″) diameter line. The second phase, from 1996 until present, included running a shear wave ultrasonic tool, a zero degree ultrasonic tool, fracture mechanics modeling and rehabilitation digs. The extensive data collection during rehabilitation was utilized to evaluate the relationships between cracking susceptibility and degree of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) with parameters such as soil type, drainage, topography and magnitude of pressure fluctuations. Corrosion products predominantly consisted of iron carbonate, very much characteristic of the low pH SCC mechanism. Following the shear wave ultrasonic tool, a zero-degree compression wave ultrasonic tool was utilized to characterize the long axial corrosion locations with potential shallow cracking. A re-inspection plan was developed using crack growth rates, hydraulic simulations of pressure fluctuations and excavation data. The reliability of the pipeline was increased and the overall integrity management costs were reduced. Presently, hydrotesting is not being used to manage integrity of Rainbow’s system.
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Liquid Pipeline Stress Corrosion Cracking
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Krishnamurthy, RM, Martens, B, Feser, D, Marreck, P, & MacDonald, R. "Liquid Pipeline Stress Corrosion Cracking." Proceedings of the 2000 3rd International Pipeline Conference. Volume 2: Integrity and Corrosion; Offshore Issues; Pipeline Automation and Measurement; Rotating Equipment. Calgary, Alberta, Canada. October 1–5, 2000. V002T06A007. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IPC2000-187
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