Ground liquefaction during earthquakes can produce a significant amount of lateral ground displacement. For buried gas pipelines, deformation and strain are likely to be concentrated on the pipe bends. Closing and opening in-plane bending experiments were conducted for various kinds of pipe bends until the measured strain exceeded 25% using pipe specimens of a diameter from 100 to 300 mm. The deformation behavior was different between the closing mode and the opening one. In the closing mode, an ovalization was observed in the central cross section of the bend, and internal pressure was maintained in all experiments. On the other hand, unique behavior was observed in the opening mode. When the pipe diameter was 300 mm (Do/t=43), local buckling was observed at the center of the bend. However, when Do/t was less than 32 (200 mm in diameter), the flexural rigidity of the bend became much higher than that of a straight pipe, and buckling and rupture were observed in the straight pipe. Finite element analyses were carried out using linear shell elements, and the validity of the numerical modeling technique over 25% of plastic strain was confirmed.

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