The CO2SAFE-ARREST joint industry project (JIP) aims to (1) investigate the fracture propagation and arrest characteristics of steel pipelines carrying anthropogenic CO2, and (2) to investigate the dispersion of CO2 following its release into the atmosphere. The project is supported by two full-scale burst tests, each based on a layout of eight X65 grade 24″ line pipes filled with a dense-phase CO2-N2 mixture. The tests were conducted over the 2017–2018 period at the DNV GL testing site at Spadeadam, UK. An overview of both the CO2SAFE-ARREST JIP and the first full-scale burst test is provided in a companion paper (IPC2018-78517). The dispersion aspect is covered in another companion paper (IPC2018-78530).
This paper presents the material properties, the design layout and the results of the first full-scale burst test. Material characterisation of the pipes available to the project and the motivation leading to the design of the layout are first presented. Six pipes had a nominal wall thickness of 13.5 mm and the remaining two pipes had a nominal wall thickness of 14.5 mm. Laboratory testing was conducted on the material at the end of each pipe section. The testing consisted of Charpy impact and Drop Weight Tear tests, capturing the upper shelf fracture energy, load-displacement curves and an assessment of the fracture surfaces. Charpy and Drop Weight Tear test energies as well as strength data are provided.
The layout reflects the research focus of the project with both conventional and less conventional pipe arrangements. The test was primarily designed around 13.5 mm nominal wall thickness pipes with a 1m depth backfill and laid East-West. The design was telescopic and introduced an asymmetry with respect to the mid-point by arranging pipe sections with increasing Charpy toughness on one side and increasing yield strength on the opposite side.
The fracture was initiated at half-length, across the girth weld between the ‘west’ and ‘east’ initiation pipes. A running ductile fracture ensued, followed by an arrest in the third pipe on either side of the test section. Experimental data relevant to fracture velocity, decompression wave speed of the CO2-N2 mixture and pressure at the crack tip are presented.
The discussion is driven from the perspective of traditional running ductile fracture control technology applied to dense-phase CO2 carrying pipelines. Emphasis is put on the analysis of the fracture velocity and transient pressure data relative to the properties of the material and CO2 mixture. The limitations of the Battelle Two-Curve Method (BTCM) traditionally used in the analysis of running ductile fracture are discussed.
The design of this test was different from that used in the three full-scale burst tests conducted as part of the COOLTRANS project. The conclusions drawn here support those from the COOLTRANS project and apply to larger D/t ratios. The first CO2SAFE-ARREST test provides additional evidence that the original Battelle Two-Curve Model is not applicable to dense-phase CO2 carrying pipelines. A shift in prediction tool technology is called for.