Miter bends are permitted for use in the oil and gas industry in a variety of configurations. This paper addresses small angle miter joints used to correct minor misalignments.
The CSA Z662-15 standard (Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems) states in the construction section (Clause 6.2.3(g)) that “mitred bends shall not be used”. However, a note accompanying the clause states that “deflections up to 3 degrees caused by misalignment are not considered to be mitred bends.” Nonetheless, concerns continue to be raised that stresses introduced due to this misalignment can affect safety and operation of pipelines.
This paper reviews literature of failures associated with mitered joints and the theoretical development of stresses in miters, and presents results from a linearized sensitivity analysis of buried mitered joints under pressure and thermal loading based on ASME B31.1 and B31.3 criteria. The paper contains an analysis of the origins of CSA-Z662 Clause 6.2.3(g). Recognizing that the stresses introduced by miters are discontinuity stresses, the paper discusses the effects of such stresses, including the use of miters in cyclic service.
Recognizing also the strong dependence of D/t ratio on the discontinuity stress, the paper suggests a modification to the Z662 approach to account for this effect. This modification would provide guidance to the use of miters to effect small deflections both during design and construction of piping.