Pipelines are the least expensive and most efficient way to move liquids and gases, but there is a high potential risk of danger in case of a leak. This paper therefore describes pipeline leak detection technologies and emergency shutdown protocols to ensure reliable and safe pipeline operations. The main focus of this paper is on internal leak detection systems which use existing field instrumentation and usually run continuously. External leak detection systems using dedicated measurement equipment such as probes and sensor cables are briefly considered. Particular emphasis will be placed on model-based techniques such as the Real Time Transient Model (RTTM) and Extended Real Time Transient Model (E-RTTM) methods. In case of a leak, appropriate emergency actions are required to limit the consequences and in particular to protect people and the environment. The last part of the paper therefore is devoted to emergency shut-down protocols.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.