In the gas transmission industry, standards such as API 14E, IGEM/TD/1 and IGEM/TD/13 limit the maximum velocity through existing pipeline and measurement facilities. However, in these standards it is unclear what the consequences of exceeding the velocity limits are. In this paper, six potential velocity limiting factors were identified: pressure loss, flow generated pulsations, pipe-wall erosion, audible noise, acoustic-noise-induced fatigue and filtration/separation equipment. These six factors were evaluated in the context of velocity increases through a case study meter station on the TransCanada pipeline in Ontario. It is found that, generally, side-branch generated pulsations and audible noise are the most limiting factors to increases in velocity, while the pressure loss across the meter station and filtration/separation equipment compatibility should be considered when increasing gas velocity. Pipe-wall erosion and acoustic-noise-induced fatigue should not be a concern when increasing the gas velocity, particularly for typical natural gas that complies with applicable pipeline specifications. For the case study meter station in its normal operating configuration, increases up to two times the current highest flow rate through the meter station show no major concerns, even though the gas velocity exceeds the limits imposed by the above-mentioned standards at most locations throughout the meter station.
- Pipeline Division
Evaluation of Maximum Velocity Limit Criteria in High Pressure Natural Gas Systems
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Hartloper, C, Botros, KK, Jensen, L, & Tse, A. "Evaluation of Maximum Velocity Limit Criteria in High Pressure Natural Gas Systems." Proceedings of the 2014 10th International Pipeline Conference. Volume 1: Design and Construction; Environment; Pipeline Automation and Measurement. Calgary, Alberta, Canada. September 29–October 3, 2014. V001T09A002. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IPC2014-33020
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