High-strength large-diameter UOE line pipes over X70 grade are difficult to apply to actual fields, including H2S, because of a deterioration of sour resistance and a lack of past performance. However, API X70 grade large-diameter UOE line pipes for sour service have been manufactured stably by optimizing the continuous casting process, controlling the shape of inclusions and decreasing coarse precipitates. A full-ring test can simulate fairly well the actual applied conditions of line pipes and evaluate hydrogen induced cracking (HIC), sulfide stress cracking (SSC) and stress oriented hydrogen induced cracking (SOHIC) of line pipes for sour service simultaneously. It was confirmed that the X70 grade UOE line pipes have a good sour resistance from standard HIC tests, four-point bent beam SSC tests and the full-ring test including a seam weld under severe sour conditions (NACE solution A with 0.1 MPa H2S). In addition, the SSC resistance of a girth welded portion was also investigated by using simulated HAZ.
Full Ring Evaluation of X70 Grade UOE Line Pipes for Sour Service
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Kobayashi, K, Omura, T, Hamada, M, Nagayama, H, Minato, I, & Nishi, Y. "Full Ring Evaluation of X70 Grade UOE Line Pipes for Sour Service." Proceedings of the 2012 9th International Pipeline Conference. Volume 3: Materials and Joining. Calgary, Alberta, Canada. September 24–28, 2012. pp. 421-428. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IPC2012-90417
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