Theoretical analysis methods are discussed to estimate additional stresses of shallow buried oil and gas pipeline caused by rock fall impaction. The process of impaction is simulated using finite elements software, in the model a 1 m3 square shape falling hard rock impacts soil ground upright of pipe with a vertical velocity, and dynamic response of pipeline is analyzed. The impact force, soil additional stresses, pipe displacement and additional stresses in the impaction process are studied. The effect of pipeline buried depth and rock velocity to the impaction also discussed. Results show that the impaction process is very short and the duration is about 10−3∼10−2s. The maximum impact force has approximately direct ratio with the velocity of rock. The additional vertical stress in soil caused by impaction load has a stress concentration region near the surface of pipe, and its distribution has the similar pattern with that in static load, but has a faster attenuation from the impaction center to sidewall. The most dangerous pipe cross-section appears in the underside of impaction center, and the maximum additional equivalent stress appears in the top of the cross-section, and has an approximately direct ratio with the velocity of rock if other impaction conditions are confirmed. The buried depth of pipeline has major influence to impaction. Large thickness of soil cover has marked effect on improve the protection of pipeline. According the study, shallow buried pipeline has weak defense to rock fall. The additional internal force and stress of pipeline caused by impaction of rock fall can be approximately estimated using theoretical methods or numerical simulation.
Analysis and Numerical Simulation on Dynamic Response of Buried Pipeline Caused by Rock Fall Impaction
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Jing, H, Deng, Q, Hao, J, Han, B, & Li, L. "Analysis and Numerical Simulation on Dynamic Response of Buried Pipeline Caused by Rock Fall Impaction." Proceedings of the 2012 9th International Pipeline Conference. Volume 2: Pipeline Integrity Management. Calgary, Alberta, Canada. September 24–28, 2012. pp. 303-311. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IPC2012-90053
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