Tensile testing is a key part of the qualification process of Line Pipe. When qualifying pipe products various items are considered when tensile testing; Yield Strength (YS), Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), Percent Elongation (%EL), and the Yield Strength to Tensile Strength Ratio (Y/T) are all important. Of these, the YS is the most critical and yet the most sensitive to both preparation and measurement techniques. During the pipe forming process, the base material is plastically formed into a curved shape, and then welded into the final product. The Transverse to Pipe Axis (TPA) tensile specimen removed for testing is curved and must be flattened prior to testing. The flattening process is varied in many facilities and the standards to which testing is conducted are not specific enough to ensure uniformity of procedures. ASTM acknowledges flattening processes and the degree of flatness “may affect test results”, though no guidance is given. This paper will provide an overview of ongoing research efforts, concerning the measurement of the Yield Strength of TPA tensile specimens and its relationship to curvature and flattening methods, prior to testing. By comparing flattened strap tests, to round bar and ring expansion tests, it is shown that the flattened strap test provides a conservative estimate of the actual YS of the pipe.
- International Petroleum Technology Institute and the Pipeline Division
The Effect of Sample Flattening on Yield Strength Measurement in Line Pipe
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Crone, DG, Collins, LE, Bian, Y, & Weber, P. "The Effect of Sample Flattening on Yield Strength Measurement in Line Pipe." Proceedings of the 2010 8th International Pipeline Conference. 2010 8th International Pipeline Conference, Volume 2. Calgary, Alberta, Canada. September 27–October 1, 2010. pp. 477-482. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IPC2010-31273
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