The toughness and plasticity of steel generally decreases with increasing testing rate. The crack tip opening angle (CTOA) was measured on two types of commercial pipeline steels API-X65 and API-X100, at a range of displacement rates to characterize rate effects. The testing was conducted at quasi-static and dynamic rates. The crosshead displacements in our test matrix ranged from 0.002 mm/s in the quasi-static mode to approximately 8000 mm/s in the dynamic mode. The quasi-static tests were conducted in a servo-hydraulic uniaxial test machine using Modified Double Cantilever Beam (MDCB) specimens. The dynamic experiments were made on a similar servo-hydraulic uniaxial test machine using the same type of specimen and with the addition of a disc spring setup for the fastest rate. The results of these tests indicate that the rate effect has negligible influence on the CTOA values measured for these materials for the reported rates. The CTOA values measured for the two materials show a small but convincing difference. The resistance to fracture was found to be higher for the X65 steel, as indicated by a higher CTOA and lower crack growth velocity. This paper presents results on the influence of displacement rates from quasi-static to dynamic for the X65 and X100 grade pipeline steels, and discusses a method for optimizing the reduction of the CTOA data.
- International Petroleum Technology Institute and the Pipeline Division
CTOA Results for X65 and X100 Pipeline Steels: Influence of Displacement Rate
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Reuven, R, McCowan, C, Drexler, E, Shtechman, A, Darcis, P, Treinen, M, Smith, R, Merritt, J, Siewert, T, & McColskey, JD. "CTOA Results for X65 and X100 Pipeline Steels: Influence of Displacement Rate." Proceedings of the 2008 7th International Pipeline Conference. 2008 7th International Pipeline Conference, Volume 3. Calgary, Alberta, Canada. September 29–October 3, 2008. pp. 279-286. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IPC2008-64363
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