A precise analysis of the transient cooldown of subsea pipelines is crucial for offshore flow assurance, to avoid, for example, hydrate formation or wax deposition. Flow assurance in transportation lines, where column separation can occur due to large temperature drop coupled with large pressure drop, must also be addressed. Usually, pipeline thermal insulation is designed for steady state conditions. However, during shutdowns, the temperature drop experienced by the stagnant fluid is more pronounced, eventually reaching some critical temperature level, that can lead to flow line blockage and flow re-start problems. Thus, the determination of the temperature and pressure distributions along the pipeline under transient conditions is important to maintain the line operating safely. To determine the transient heat transfer in pipelines, the fluid flow conservation equations coupled with the heat conduction equation applied to the pipeline wall were numerically solved. The heat loss from the pipeline was determined by solving the transient heat conduction equation for the pipewall layers, utilizing a simple one-dimensional model in the radial direction. The coupled system was solved numerically employing the finite difference method. Transient analyses were performed for two scenarios. In the first one, the cooldown process of oil in a subsea pipeline was evaluated, with the effect of variable thermal properties on the temperature profile being investigated. The dependence of the temperature on the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity was analyzed. In the second scenario, gas flows inside the pipeline, and the effect of temperature variation on a stagnant fluid is presented. Tests for different values of thermal diffusivity corresponding to new and old thermal insulations were performed.
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Analysis of the Transient Cooldown of Sub-Sea Pipelines
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Barrera Escobedo, JJ, Nieckele, AO, & Azevedo, LFA. "Analysis of the Transient Cooldown of Sub-Sea Pipelines." Proceedings of the 2006 International Pipeline Conference. Volume 1: Project Management; Design and Construction; Environmental Issues; GIS/Database Development; Innovative Projects and Emerging Issues; Operations and Maintenance; Pipelining in Northern Environments; Standards and Regulations. Calgary, Alberta, Canada. September 25–29, 2006. pp. 845-853. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IPC2006-10554
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