Waxy crudes are generally pipelined by means of heating. In general, the friction loss of a pipeline decreases with decreasing flow rate. This is the case of isothermal pipeline. However, a hot oil pipeline operated at low flow rate might show a contrary case, i.e. friction-loss increases with decreasing flow rate. This is an unstable operation state and may result in disastrous consequence of flow ceasing if tackled improperly. For a waxy crude pipeline, this may also be exaggerated by the non-Newtonian flow characteristics at temperatures near the pour point. That is to say, there may exist a critical flow rate for pipelines transporting heated waxy crude, and in order to ensure safe operation, the flow rate of a pipeline transporting hot oil should be no less than this critical flow rate. Based on theoretical analysis and can study, the hydraulic characteristics of pipelines transporting hot waxy crudes was investigated, and an empirical model was developed correlating the critical flow rate QC and the pipelining parameters, such as the average overall heat transfer coefficient, the ground temperature, the heating temperature, etc. Another relationship was found between TZC, the outlet temperature of the pipeline corresponding to the critical flow rate, and the critical flow rate. This TZC is also the lowest pipeline outlet temperature that ensures the normal pipelining operation state. Case study on a 720mm O.D. pipeline transporting heated Daqing waxy crude with a pour point of 36 °C showed that the TZC was in a range of 31∼34.2°C.
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Hydraulic Characteristics of Pipelines Transporting Hot Waxy Crudes
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Chen, J, Zhang, J, & Li, H. "Hydraulic Characteristics of Pipelines Transporting Hot Waxy Crudes." Proceedings of the 2006 International Pipeline Conference. Volume 1: Project Management; Design and Construction; Environmental Issues; GIS/Database Development; Innovative Projects and Emerging Issues; Operations and Maintenance; Pipelining in Northern Environments; Standards and Regulations. Calgary, Alberta, Canada. September 25–29, 2006. pp. 723-727. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IPC2006-10259
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