Buried pipelines have always required a certain level of additional weight to counteract the buoyant force that is often exerted on them from groundwater. Early methods of buoyancy control include the use of cast iron, and later, concrete weighting. In 1993 a new type of weight was introduced to the pipeline industry which addressed many of the pitfalls of earlier weight designs — the geotextile fabric weight (GFW).
- International Petroleum Technology Institute
The Use of Geotextile Fabric, Anti-Buoyancy Weights for Buried Pipelines
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Connors, GW. "The Use of Geotextile Fabric, Anti-Buoyancy Weights for Buried Pipelines." Proceedings of the 2004 International Pipeline Conference. 2004 International Pipeline Conference, Volumes 1, 2, and 3. Calgary, Alberta, Canada. October 4–8, 2004. pp. 359-363. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IPC2004-0028
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