An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of tool cutting-edge geometry and workpiece hardness on surface residual stresses for finish hard turning of through-hardened AISI 52100 steel. Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) inserts with representative types of edge geometry including “up-sharp” edges, edge hones, and chamfers, were used as the cutting tools in this study. This study shows that tool edge geometry is highly influential with respect to surface residual stresses, which were measured using x-ray diffraction. In general, compressive surface residual stresses in the axial and circumferential directions were generated by large edge hone tools, for longitudinal turning operations. Residual stresses in the axial and circumferential directions generated by small edge hone tools are typically more tensile than stresses produced by large edge hone tools. Microstructural analysis shows that thermal effects are significant at high feed rates, based on the presence of phase changes on the workpiece surface. At high feed rates, compressive stresses correlate with continuous white layers and tensile stresses correlate with over-tempered regions on the surface of the workpiece. Mechanical effects play a larger role at low feed rates, where phase changes are not observed to a significant degree. For these cases, large edge hone tools generally produce more compressive values of residual stress than small edge hone tools.