Biomechanical models had been used to conduct a series of lifting related experiments which were performed to understand different parameters such as asymmetry, lifting speed, load magnitude, lifting techniques, fatigue, etc. These studies were performed either in Bottom-Up or Top-Down models to predict kinematic or kinetic data in each inter-segment joint. Bureau of Labor Statistics (1995) [1] reported that in 1994, 367,424 injuries due to overexertion in lifting had 65% affected the back; 93,325 injuries due to overexertion in pushing or pulling, 52% affected the back; 68,992 injuries due to overexertion in holding, carrying, or truning, 58% affected the back; and totaled across these three categories, 47,861 disorders affected the shoulder [2]. Since lifting activities are whole body motion and each inter-segment joint cannot be treated as individual, the synchronization of all body joints should be considered during lifting tasks. Therefore the whole-body posture, kinematic, and kinetic analyses were included in this study. The whole-body posture analysis included lift duration, peak box velocity and acceleration, and the orientation of the trunk and pelvis segment; the whole-body kinematic analysis contained angular displacement, velocity, and acceleration of all body joints; and the whole-body kinetic analysis consisted of the inertial forces and inertial moment of each body segment, and the local forces and moments of each inter-segment joint.

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