An understanding of the flow properties of non-Newtonian fluids is important in many areas of application. To solve flow problems, it is required to introduce a constitutive equation that relates the stress tensor to various kinematic tensors. The determination of a constitutive equation which describes adequately the rheological properties of a fluid under all flow conditions is one of the central problems in rheology. Constitutive equations have been developed based on either continuum mechanics or on the molecular structure of the fluids.

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