The main objective of this study is an application of short-term prediction method by chaos theory to vibration control. In this paper, we proposed two predictive control methods for mechanical systems. The input time series or the output time series of a mechanical system in the near future was predicted by the short-term prediction method based on chaos theory and we used the obtained time series effectively to get the control force. The algorithm of the short-term prediction method, which is based on Takens’s theorem, used in this study and a condition to have sufficient precision of prediction were discussed from practical engineering points. The effectiveness of the proposed control methods was shown by numerical results and experimental results.