Aircraft system identification can either occur in the time-or frequency-domain with each approach having inherent advantages and disadvantages. For example, time-domain modelling generates superior time history matches and has a superior ability to achieve a trim solution. However, time-domain models do not provide a high degree of insight to the frequency responses of the system, which is important for control law development and for matching handling qualities for pilot-in-the-loop simulation — this is a strength of the frequency-domain approach. This paper utilises a Pareto optimization procedure to combine both the time- and frequency-domain approaches and exploit the strengths of both methods. Pareto fronts are generated for the system identification of a 6 degree-of-freedom forward flight model at 90 kts of the National Research Council of Canada’s Bell 412 helicopter. The generated Pareto fronts showed the necessity of balancing the time- and frequency-domain matches whereby moving from the compromise solution to either the isolated time- or frequency-domain solutions resulted in a small improvement in one while the other suffered relatively more. Accordingly, the multi-objective solution using Pareto optimization capitalized on the strengths of both approaches and avoided an overspecialized solution in either of the domains.

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